Science Project – Completed


 

Mirror, Mirror on the wall, who’s the purest of them all?

 

PURPOSE:

My purpose for this experiment is to found out which of the follow waters is the purest. I became interested in the idea; because I notice a difference in the taste of the water I drink. The information gained from this experiment will help my community to know which drinking water is the safest to drink.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

My hypothesis is, if I test five water types, I hypothesize that Aquafina water is the most pure, because Aquafina is the top seller of bottle water and it taste good.

 

BACKGROUND/RESEARCH:

Water is one of the most abundant resources on earth. Water is a compound, or molecule consisting of 2 separate elements, oxygen and hydrogen. In each molecule of water there is 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom that bond together to form H2O or water.

 

Over 70% of the earth is water. Of all the earth’s water, 97% is in oceans and seas leaving 2% as fresh water in glaciers, and the remaining 1% in lakes, ground water, rivers, and the atmosphere for human and animal to drink. The Great Lakes represent 95% of all fresh water above ground in the United States.

 

Our drinking water comes from rivers, lakes, and aquifers in America.

 

The blood that flows through our veins and arteries is made up approximately 95% water. Next to air, water is the most important element needed to sustain life. A human can survive approximately 30 days without food while only surviving only 7 days without water.

 

Nitrates and Nitrates Test

Nitrates and Nitrates frequently get into drinking water from numerous manmade activities such as framing, industrial waste, sewage, biological waste, and feedlot runoff. Nitrates/Nitrites are not desirable at any level in potable water, however the EPA Primary Standards are 1 ppm (parts per million) for Nitrite and 10 ppm for Nitrate.

 

Hardness Test

Hardness is normally measured in ppm or gpg (grains per gallon). One (1) grain per gallon is equal to 17.1ppm of hardness. Currently there are no EPA Standards for hardness, however, most water professionals agree that 50 ppm or less is desirable range. The effect of hardness can cause the overuse of soap and other detergents since they do not bubble up as well in hard water.

 

Acidity (pH) Test

     The pH scale of 0-14 indicates if the water is acidic, neutral or alkaline. A pH of 7 means the water is neutral and ideal. Current EPA Secondary Standards suggest a pH range of 6.5 to 8.5.

 

Alkalinity Test

     High alkaline levels above 180 ppm may cause skin irritation as well as questionable taste.

 

Chlorine Test

     The EPA recommends a level of chlorine less than 4.0 to be present in tap water. Since the time the first automobile was made, chlorine has been added to the public water system to prevent diseases such as typhoid and cholera.

 

Iron Test

     Iron normally occurs naturally in water and does not present a problem unless it exceeds EPA Secondary Standard of more than .3 ppm. Stains on fixtures and on clothing occurs as iron levels increases. The stains are usually a red-brownish color.

 

Copper Test

     Copper occurs naturally in the water as well. If the copper levels are above the EPA Secondary Standards of 1.3 ppm, problems can begin to occur. Copper can affect red blood cells, causing blood related ailments and at levels above 3 ppm can result in severe gastrointestinal reactions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MATERIALS AND PROCEDURES:

 

Items used:

5 drinking glasses (same size)

Zephyrhills bottled water

Aquafina bottled water

My home water (tap)

Church water (Jensen beach)

Well water

Paper

Pencil

Labels

Tape

5- Individually foiled strips with 4 test on each strip

5- Individually foiled strips with 3 test on each strip

5- Individually foiled strips with 1 test on each strip

5- Vials for the Iron Test

5- Iron reagent tablets, foiled, containing sulfite for the iron test

 

Procedures:

  1. Collect water samples
  2. Cover work area
  3. Pour each kind of water into its own clear cups
  4. Label each clear plastic cup to match the kind of water in it

 

  1. Test Chlorine,  Copper,  Nitrate Nitrogen, and Nitrite Nitrogen

A:  Rinse out vials and fill to ¼ from the top with water

B: Remove test strip from foil packet marked TCL/CO/NA/NI

                                                * pick up strip on end with no pads,

                C:  Dip in water, swirl strip 3 times and remove

D: IMMEDIATELY read Chlorine pad by comparing to chart below. Next, read the Copper test and after a total of 45 seconds has elapsed from when the test strip was first dipped, read the Nitrate/Nitrite test.

 

  1. Test Alkalinity/pH/Hardness

A: Rinse out test vial and fill ¼ from top with water

B: Remove test strip from packet marked ALK/pH/Hard

C:  Dip the ALK/ pH/Hard

D: Hold test strip level and wait ten (10) seconds. Compare to color chart below in order starting with alkalinity, then pH and hardness.

 

  1. Test Iron

A. Rinse out the test vial and fill to ¼ inch from top

B. remove (1) iron tablet from foil and place in test vial

C. Place cap on test vial and shake until tablet dissolves

D. Remove test strip marked iron. Dip test strip into vial for one second and remove

E. Hold level for 15 seconds. Compare to chart.

 

 

 

RESULTS:

 

In this experiment the purpose was to test the alkalinity, pH, hardness, iron, total chlorine, nitrate nitrogen, copper, and nitrite nitrogen levels of the water different water that I drink, according the EPA Standards.

 

Nitrates and Nitrates Test

Aquafina, home tap, church, and well water samples tested were zero (0) ppm while Zephyrhills registered 5 ppm of nitrates.

 

All water samples tested zero (0) ppm of nitrites.

 

Hardness Test

Aquafina and church water has zero hardness in them. Home tap water has 50 hardness. Then Zephyrhills has 120 hardness in it. And finally the well water has 425 hardness in it.

 

Acidity (pH) Test

Aquafina has a pH level of 6.5, while Zephyrhills, Home tap, church, and well water has a pH level of 7.

 

Alkalinity Test

The water samples from Aquafina and home tap water were registered at zero (0) while church water was 120 ppm; Zephyrhills was 224 ppm; and well water was 240 ppm.

 

Chlorine Test

All water samples were zero (0) ppm of chlorine. 

 

Iron Test

All water samples tested at zero (0) ppm of iron except for the well water, and it tested as 5+. The level of iron in the well water is very high.

 

Copper Test

All test samples were zero (0) ppm of copper.

 

  Zephyrhills Aquafina Home                    (tap) Church (Jensen Bch) Well Water EPA Standard
Nitrates 5 0 0 0 0 ≥ 10 ppm
Nitrites 0 0 0 0 0 ≥ 1 ppm
Alkalinity 224 0 0 120 240 ≥ 180 ppm
pH 7 7 7 7 7 < 7 > 9
Hardness 120 0 50 0 425 ≥ 50 ppm
Iron 0 0 0 0 5+ ≥ .3 ppm
Copper 0 0 0 0 0 ≥ 1.3 ppm
Chlorine 0 0 0 0 0 ≥ 4 ppm

CONCLUSION & DISCUSSION:

     I concluded that Aquafina is the best in the entire test. Not only Aquafina taste great, it passed the EPA Guidelines of nitrates, nitrites, pH, alkalinity, hardness, iron, copper and chlorine.

 

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